Reading Room

Man’s Search for Meaning: Viktor Frankl

“At times, lightning decisions had to be made, decisions which spelled life or death. The prisoner would have preferred to let fate make the choice for him. This escape from commitment was most apparent when a prisoner had to make the decision for or against an escape attempt. In those minutes in whicReadingRoomFranklh he had to make up his mind – and it was always a question of minutes – he suffered the tortures of Hell.”

“We were grateful for the smallest of mercies. We were glad when there was time to delouse before going to bed, although this in itself was no pleasure, as it meant standing naked in an unheated hut where icicles hung from the ceiling.”

“If someone had seen our faces on the journey from Auschwitz to a Bavarian camp as we beheld the mountains of Salzburg with their summits glowing in the sunset, through the little barred windows of the prison carriage, he would never have believed that those were the faces of men who had given up all hope of life and liberty. Despite that factor – or maybe because of it – we were carried away by nature’s beauty, which we had missed for so long.”

In a nutshell

The meaning of life is the meaning that you decide to give it.

Viktor Frankl’s wife, father, mother, and brother died in the concentration camps of Nazi Germany. Only his sister survived. Enduring extreme hunger, cold, and brutality, first in Auschwitz and then Dachau, Frankl himself was under constant threat of going to the gas ovens. He lost every physical belonging on his first day in the camps, and was forced to surrender a scientific manuscript that he considered his life’s work.

This is, if there ever was one, a story that could excuse someone believing that life is meaningless and suicide a reasonable option. Yet having been lowered into the pits of humanity, Frankl emerged an optimist. His reasoning was that even in the most terrible circumstances, people still have the freedom to choose how they see their circumstances and create meaning out of them. As Gordon Allport notes in his preface to the third edition, this is what the ancient Stoics called the “last freedom.” The evil of torture is not so much the physical torment, but the active attempt to extinguish freedom.

Redefining human achievement

A favourite quote of Frankl’s was from Nietzsche, “He who has a why to live can bear with almost any how.” The most poignant bits of this classic are Frankl’s recollections of the thoughts that gave him the will to live. Mental images of his wife provided the only light in the dark days of the concentration camp, and there is a beautiful scene when he is thinking of her with such intensity that when a bird hops on to a mound in front of him, it appears to be her living embodiment. He also imagined himself after liberation in lecture halls, telling people about what must never happen again. This proved to be prophetic. Finally, there was the desire to jot down notes remembered from his lost manuscript.

The men who had given up, in contrast, could be recognised because they smoked their last cigarettes, which could otherwise have been traded for a scrap of food. These men had decided that life held nothing more for them. Yet this thinking struck Frankl as a terrible mistake. We are not here to judge life according to what we expected from it and what it has delivered. Rather, he realised, we must find the courage to ask what life expects of us, day by day. Our task is not merely to survive, but to find the guiding truth specific to us and our situation, which can sometimes only be revealed in the worst suffering. Indeed, Frankl says that “rather than being a symptom of neurosis, suffering may well be a human achievement.”

The book’s impact

Man’s Search for Meaning has sold over nine million copies and been translated into 24 languages. It was voted one of America’s ten most influential books by the Library of Congress. Yet Frankl, who originally wanted the book to be published with only his prisoner number on the cover, stated that he did not see the work as a great achievement. Its success was “an expression of the misery of our time,” revealing the ravenous hunger for meaningful existence.

Apart from its bestseller status, Man’s Search for Meaning has been a big influence on the major self-help writers. The emphasis on responsibility that we find in Covey’s The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, for example, is directly inspired by Frankl, and the work is referenced in a number of books covered in this volume.

The current edition has three parts: the autobiographical “Experiences in a concentration camp”; a theoretical essay “Logotherapy in a nutshell” (1962); and a piece titled “The case for a tragic optimism” (1984).With this structure, the unputdownable personal story leads the reader on to its intellectual implications.

The will to meaning and logotherapy

What is amazing about Frankl’s experiences is that they caused him to live out the ideas about which, as a doctor before the outbreak of the Second World War, he had been theorising. The theory and the practice became the Third School of Viennese Psychotherapy, logotherapy (from the Greek logos, “meaning”), following Freud’s psychoanalysis and Adler’s individual psychology. Whereas psychoanalysis requires introspection and self-centeredness to reveal the basis of someone’s neurosis, logotherapy tries to take the person out of themselves and see their life in a broader perspective. Where psychoanalysis focuses on the “will to pleasure” and Adlerian psychology on the will to power, logotherapy sees the prime motivating force in human beings as a will to meaning.

Frankl remembers an American diplomat coming to his office in Vienna who had spent five years in psychoanalysis. Discontented with his job and uncomfortable about implementing US foreign policy, this man’s analyst had laid the blame on the relationship with his father: The United States government represented the father image and was therefore the superficial object of his angst, but the real issue was his feelings toward his biological father. Frankl, however, simply diagnosed a lack of purpose in the man’s work and suggested a career change.

The diplomat took his advice and never looked back. The point of the anecdote is that in logotherapy, existential distress is not neurosis or mental disease, but a sign that we are becoming more human in the desire for meaning. In contrast to Freud or Adler, Frankl chose not to see life simply as the satisfaction of drives or instincts, or even as becoming “well adjusted” to society. Instead, he (and humanistic psychology in general, for example Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers) believed that the outstanding feature of human beings is their free will.

Sources of meaning

Logotherapy says that mental health arises when we learn how to close the gap between what we are and what we could become. But what If we are yet to identify what we could become? Frankl noted that the modern person has almost too much freedom to deal with. We no longer live through instinct, and tradition is no guide either. This is the existential vacuum in which the frustrated will to meaning is compensated for in the urge for money, sex, entertainment, even violence. We are not open to the various sources of meaning, which according to Frankl are:
1 – Creating a work or doing a deed.
2 – Experiencing something or encountering someone (love).
3 – The attitude we take to unavoidable suffering.

The first is a classic source, defined as “life purpose” in the self-help literature. Our culture expects happiness, yet Frankl says that this is not something that we should seek directly. He defines happiness as a by-product of forgetting ourselves in a task that draws on all our imagination and talents.

The second is important as it makes experience (inner and outer) a legitimate alternative to achievement in a society built around achieving. The third gives suffering a meaning, but what meaning? Frankl admits that we may never know, or at least not until later in life. Just because we do not comprehend meaning, it does not mean that there is none. To the people who say that life is meaningless because it is transitory, Frankl’s response is “only the unfulfilment of potential is meaningless, not life itself.” Our culture worships the young, yet it is age that is to be admired, since the older person has loved, suffered, and fulfilled so much. Fulfilment of your own potential, however humble, will make a permanent imprint on the history of the world, and the decision to make that imprint defines responsibility. Freedom is only one half of the equation. The other half is responsibility to act on it.

Final comments

If there is a thread running through personal development writing, it is a belief in the changeability of the individual. Determinism, in contrast, says that we can never arise above our childhood or our genetic makeup. Freud believed that if a group of people were all to be deprived of food, their individual differences would lessen, to be replaced by a single mass urge. But Frankl’s concentration camp experience often revealed to him the opposite. The hunger, torture, and filth did serve to desensitise the prisoners, but despite being herded as animals, many somehow avoided a mob mentality. We can never predict the behaviour of an individual and can make few generalizations about what it means to be human:

“Our generation is realistic, for we have come to know man as he really is. After all, man is that being who invented the gas chambers of Auschwitz; however, he is also that being who entered those gas chambers upright, with the Lord’s Prayer or the Shema Yisrael on his lips.”

What makes humans different as a species is that we can live for ideals and values. How else, as Frankl noted, would you be able to hold your head up as you entered the gas chamber? Aware that most of us would never even come close to such a horrible fate, he used it as a reference point, a symbol of personal responsibility that could guide the decisions we make in our everyday lives. No matter what the circumstances, his book says, we can be free.

Viktor Frankl

Frankl was born in I905 in Vienna. Before the Second World War he graduated with two doctorates in medicine and philosophy from the University of Vienna. During the war he spent three years at Auschwitz, Dachau, and other concentration camps. Man’s Search for Meaning was written on Frankl’s return to Vienna after liberation, and was dictated over nine days.

The ensuing years were spent as chief of the neurology department of the Policlinic Hospital, Vienna, but in the I960s he moved to the United States. He held visiting professorships at Harvard and other US universities and did over 50 American lecture tours. Throughout his life he was a keen mountain climber.

Frankl wrote more than 30 books, including Psychotherapy and Existentialism, The Unconscious God and The Unheard Cry for Meaning, and in the year of his death published an autobiography, Victor Frankl: Recollections. There have been at least 145 books and more than 1,400 journal articles written about Frankl and logotherapy, and Frankl himself received 28 honorary degrees. He died in I997, in the same week as Mother Teresa and Princess Diana.

This copy was taken from 50 Self-help Classics, written and compiled by Tom Butler-Bowdon.

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Reading Room

Meditations: Marcus Aurelius

“Begin each day by telling yourself: Today I shall be meeting with interference, ingratitude, insolence, disloyalty, ill-will and selfishness – all of them due to the offenders’ ignorance of what is good or evil. But for my part I have long perceived the nature of good and its nobility, the natureReadingRoomMeditations of evil and its meanness, and also the nature of the culprit himself, who is my brother (not in the physical sense, but as a fellow-creature similarly endowed with reason and a share of the divine); therefore none of those things can injure me, for nobody can implicate me in what is degrading”

“Love nothing but that which comes to you woven in the pattern of your destiny. For what could more aptly fit your needs?”

“Everything – horse, a vine – is created for some duty. This is nothing to wonder at: even the sun-god himself will tell you, ‘This is a work I am here to do,’ and so will all the other sky-dwellers. For what task, then, were you yourself created? For pleasure? Can such a thought be tolerated?”

In a nutshell

Don’t get caught up in trivia or pettiness; appreciate your life within a larger context.

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was emperor of Rome from 161 AD until his death 19 years later. By the time he came to power, Rome was under threat: constant warring with “barbarians” on the frontier, disease brought back by soldiers, pestilence, and even earthquakes. Try to imagine the President of the United States being so philosophical in the midst of such crises. Yet despite the circumstances, after his death Marcus Aurelius would come to be idealised by the Romans as the perfect emperor, a genuine philosopher-king who provided the last real nobility of rule before the savagery of his son Commodus’ reign and the anarchy of the third century.

A student of Stoic philosophy, Marcus Aurelius refused to be made miserable by the difficulties of life. Stoicism was a Greek school of thought originating around 300 BC. In simple terms, it taught that submission to the law of the universe was how human beings should live, and emphasised duty, avoidance of pleasure, reason, and fearlessness of death. Stoics would also have full responsibility for their actions, independence of mind, and pursue the greater good over their own. The emperor would have been comfortable with today’s United Nations and other world bodies that stand for cooperative effort: Stoics had an international outlook and believed in universal brotherhood.

As well as the world, the thoughts of the Stoics spanned time, as this excerpt from the Meditations demonstrates:

“All things fade into the storied past, and in a little while are shrouded in oblivion. Even to men whose lives were a blaze of glory this comes to pass; as to the rest, the breath is hardly out of them before, in Homer’s words, they are ‘lost to sight alike and hearsay’. What, after all, is immortal fame? An empty, hollow thing. To what, then, must we aspire? This, and this alone: the just thought, the unselfish act, the tongue that utters no falsehood, the temper that greets each passing event as something predestined, expected, and emanating from the One source and origin.”

This was written over 19 centuries ago, yet it is somehow even more relevant when we know how ancient it is. Marcus Aurelius’ life itself bears the statement out; not many now will have cause to remember his skill or otherwise as a leader, but his Meditations, quiet thoughts written by firelight in the midst of campaigns, live on in hearts and minds.

The Meditations are alive with perceptiveness about the basic unity of all things in the universe, including its people. They tell us that the effort to see through another’s eyes is nothing less than an expansion of one’s world – and a unifying of it. To despise, avoid, or judge a person is simply an obstruction of Nature’s law. The realisation that to move human relations to a higher level we must do the opposite of these things formed the basis of the emperor’s thought.

On every page of the Meditations is this theme of accepting things and people how they are, not how we would like them to be. There is sadness in this view, as the following brief comment suggests: “You may break your heart, but men still go on as before.” One does get the impression of reading the thoughts of a lonely man, but then Marcus Aurelius’ ability to see life objectively saved him from any real disillusionment:

“Be like the headland against which the waves break and break: it stands firm, until presently the watery tumult around it subsides once more to rest. ‘How unlucky I am, that this should have happened to me!’ By no means; say, rather, ‘How lucky I am that this has left me with no bitterness; unshaken by the present, and undismayed by the future.'”

The great worth of Stoic philosophy is its ability to help put things into perspective so you can remember the things that matter; the Meditations is, if you like, an ancient and noble Don’t Sweat the Small Stuff. The person who can see the world as it really is also carries the ability to see beyond that world. We are here and we have a job to do, but there is a feeling that we came from another place, and will eventually go back to it. Life can be sad and lonely, seemingly one thing after another, but this should never dull our basic wonder at our existence in the universe:

“Survey the circling stars as though you yourself were mid-course with them. Often picture the changing and rechanging dance of the elements. Visions of this kind purge away the dross of our earth-bound life.”

Final comments

What can we make of the fact that Marcus Aurelius was the father of Commodus, whose accession and brutal reign broke the tradition of non-hereditary kingship? If the philosopher was such a great man, how could he have fathered such a brute? The Meditations is not just another self-help book with easy answers-its very theme is imperfection. We can never know exactly why things happen, why people act the way they do, but it is not up to us to judge anyway; there is a larger meaning to events and lives that escapes us. This knowledge itself is a comfort. This is a short book that is a source of sanity in a mad world, and today’s reader will also love the beautiful prose that makes it stand out against modern philosophical and self-help writings.

Marcus Aurelius

When Hadrian, one of Rome’s most successful emperors, died in I38 AD, he appointed as his successor Antoninus Pius, who in turn, on Hadrian’s instructions, adopted the 17-year-old Marcus Aurelius as his successor. The young man’s future was confirmed when he was married to Faustina, a daughter of Antoninus Pius. As well as carrying out courtly duties, he devoted himself to the study of law and philosophy. Taking power at age 40, Aurelius voluntarily divided rule with his brother Lucius Verus, who was to die eight years later.

Though peaceful by nature, Aurelius was forced continually to defend the Empire’s territories against the Germanic tribes, including the Marcomanni and the Quadi. A single manuscript, now lost, is the source of the Meditations. Marcus Aurelius had never intended that it be published. The year I559 saw its first printing, almost I4 centuries after the emperor’s death in I80. While Ridley Scott’s film Gladiator portrays the emperor being murdered by Commodus, there is no historical evidence for this.

This copy was taken from 50 Self-help Classics, written and compiled by Tom Butler-Bowdon.

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